Luke Ronchi’s 26-ball 52 helped Islamabad United beat Peshawar Zalmi by three wickets at the National Stadium in Karachi on Sunday and become Pakistan Super League champions for the second time.Opting to bat first, Peshawar Zalmi lost three wickets within the first six overs and were struggling at 38/3. Then, Chris Jordan and Liam Dawson got together to stitch a 52-run stand for the fourth wicket before Hussain Talat removed Jordan for a 26-ball 36.And that was the opening of the floodgates for Islamabad. They kept picking wickets at regular intervals to keep a check on the run flow. Dawson anchored the innings and finished with a 30-ball 33 before falling in the 17th over. However, Wahab Riaz walked in slogged the bowlers around take Peshawar’s score to a fightbale 148/9 from their 20 overs. He remained not out on 28 off 14 balls, hitting four boundaries and one six in the process.Shadab Khan was the pick of the bowlers. He picked up 3/25 from his four overs while Samit Patel and Hussain Talat picked up two wickets each.Coming into bat, Islamabad were off to a blinder. Ronchi and Sahibzada Farhan hammered the bowlers all around the park and it looked like the match is going to be over within 15 overs. Ronchi raced away to his fifty before falling to Chris Jordan in the ninth over but the damage was already done.50 comes up for Luke Ronchi!Watch ball by ball highlights at https://t.co/cOZwC5PSix#IUvPZ #HBLPSL #PSL2018 @_cricingif pic.twitter.com/g4JUpRIIqfadvertisementPakistanSuperLeague (@thePSLt20) March 25, 2018Umaid Asif rthen emoved Chadwick Walton soon after and captain Jean-Paul Duminy fell eight balls later and Islamabad were reduced to 102/3 from 96/0.All eyes were on Farhan to carry on and win the match but Riaz had other plans. The left-arm pacer got the wicket of the settled opener and sent him packing for 44 from 33 balls. And all of a sudden it was a tough ask for Patel and Shadab from there. But Patel and Shadab were soon sent packing by Hasan and their trouble deepened.But, Asif Ali came out bashed 26 off 6 balls to guide the 2016 champions past the finish line and lift their second title. Ali hit three sixes in his innings.Faheem Ashraf scores the match-winning six for Islamabad United!Watch ball by ball highlights at https://t.co/cOZwC5PSix#IUvPZ #HBLPSL #PSL2018 @_cricingif pic.twitter.com/u7GanoAfmgPakistanSuperLeague (@thePSLt20) March 25, 2018
Where n = number density of electrons, p = number density of holes, V = electrostatic potential, Rn = electron recombination rate, Rp = hole recombination rate, Jn = electron current, and Jp = hole current. If you solve this set of equations, you can construct the voltage-current characteristics, step response, and efficiency of semiconducting devices. Device engineers who are working on the applications of graphene-based semiconductors can already make “what-if” decisions for how well a specific device will work using appropriate semiconductor device simulation software.Manufacturing and Large-Scale Production IssuesThere are many competing manufacturing methods employed to attempt mass-producing graphene – including exfoliation, epitaxial growth on a suitable substrate, reduction of graphene oxide, pyrolisis, or growth from metal-carbon melts. Another method is the use of thermal decomposition at high vacuum. Engineers might look to simulation in order to design and optimize high-vacuum systems that are suitable for producing graphene. However, there are few modeling tools out there capable of aiding in this, particularly if the system is nonisothermal. As the mean free path of gas molecules become comparable to the length scale of flow, kinetic effects become important. Therefore, conventional fluid dynamics tools cannot be used for modeling gases at low pressures. The pressure on surfaces primarily depends on the line of sight with respect to molecular sources and sinks in the vacuum system.As an example, take the nonisothermal vacuum system described in this thesis on growth of graphene films on Pt(111). The system shown there would inevitably be costly to build, but if design optimizations can be made prior to construction, it would save a lot of money later on. The thesis outlines some estimations on the fluxes onto surfaces and deposition rates, but these do not take the geometry of the system; the notion that different surfaces have different temperatures; or the location of the pumps into consideration.If we were to accurately model nonisothermal molecular flows and deposition rates onto substrates on arbitrarily complicated geometries, we would need to take a sophisticated modeling approach. The flow of gas is determined by collisions with the surfaces in the system because gas molecules interact with surfaces more frequently than they interact with one another. Therefore, we would need to solve a complicated integral equation in order to compute the molecular flux, pressure, heat flux, and number density in the system. The molecular flux can further be used together with a suitable differential equation to determine the deposition rate and the deposited film thickness. This allows different process configurations and concepts to be tested before building the physical process chamber.Simulation and Experiments Go Hand-in-HandThe potential improvements in a wide range of today’s devices along with the potential to create new devices, makes graphene too powerful of a substance to ignore. Even though mass-producing graphene in a monetarily and environmentally efficient way is an ongoing process, researchers are already simulating and prototyping graphene-based devices. Due to its unusual properties, any simulation tool should be chosen carefully to fully take into account all the different physical processes that need to be taken into consideration. The characteristics of prototypical graphene-based devices need to be carefully measured, quantified, and compared with the expected performance. In this sense, the simulation and experiments go hand-in-hand – the simulations can provide guidance as to what experiments to perform; the experiments can provide data to validate the simulation, giving confidence that further simulations will reproduce the physical characteristics of the actual device.If you are interested in reading more about graphene, check out the graphene series on the COMSOL Blog.COMSOL® is a rapidly growing, high-tech engineering software company, providing solutions for physics-based modeling and simulation. With COMSOL Multiphysics® and the suite of add-on modules, engineers and scientists can simulate any physics-based system. Learn more at http://www.comsol.com/.Daniel Smith received his Masters degree in applied mathematics from the University of St. Andrews in 2002 and a Masters in Numerical computing from the University of Manchester in 2003. Following this, Daniel worked as a scientist at MKS Instruments in the Corporate Advanced Technology group. At a certain gate-to-source voltage (VGS), and at low drain-to-source voltages (VDS), the drain current is almost linearly dependent on VDS. When VDS increases, the drain current saturates. The saturation level is dependent on the gate-to-source voltage, while the switching time is dependent on the semiconductor’s mobility. In other words, the higher the mobility of the semiconducting material, the faster the current can be switched on and off.The fact that the room temperature electron mobility of graphene is an order of magnitude greater than silicon means that lower drain-source voltages can be applied to generate the same electrical current. This results in lower electric fields for the same electrical current, hence less power dissipation (since the power dissipation is the dot product of the current density and electric field). From a thermal management and maintenance cost perspective, this is very attractive. Another advantage of the high electron mobility is that the on/off switch time will be an order of magnitude faster than in the pure silicon case, which is significant in the power electronics industry.Since the physics of semiconductors is rather complicated, the modeling approach most commonly used is to solve a set of drift diffusion equations coupled to Poisson’s equation: Graphene is both strong and lightweight, providing many potential applications of graphene-based electrical and structural devices. Thanks to COMSOL Multiphysics®, with its state-of-the-art solvers, optimized by Intel® to run on their processors, simulating such applications is now straightforward.What is graphene?In short, graphene is a special type of material made up of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. It was discovered in its stable form at the University of Manchester in 2003, leading to Nobel Prizes in 2010 for the two researchers who discovered the material. Since 2004, when graphene was originally isolated in its planar form using adhesive tape, the race has been on to mass-produce the material utilizing economical fabrication techniques. These days, a more popular method involves performing epitaxial growth on silicon carbide by heating it to high temperatures at very low pressures. There are plenty of other techniques out there as well, all accompanied by their own advantages and limitations. As I mentioned, graphene is both strong and lightweight – to be more specific, it is about 200 times stronger than steel and weighs less than 1 milligram per square meter. Furthermore, compared to copper, graphene has a higher electrical and thermal conductivity. This can be attributed to the unusually high room temperature electron mobility of 15,000 cm2/(V-s).Introducing a Band Gap Into GrapheneResearchers have attempted to use graphene as a replacement for silicon in semiconductor devices. The problem with graphene in its unaltered form is that it does not have a band gap. This means that, if used in a fast electrical switch (like a MOSFET), there is no way to turn the current off. The basic idea is to chemically modify the graphene so that it retains its unusually high mobility, but introduces a band gap to make it behave like a semiconductor.In simple terms, the idea of a MOSFET is to apply a gate voltage to control the drain-to-source resistance and thus the drain current, as such:
Andy Goldstein and Jason Cundy run you through the best bits from the Sports Bar this week.There were calls following the midweek Champions League action, while snooker legend John Virgo visited the studio and Tony Bellew gave an exclusive interview.Plus, all the usual Sports Bar fun and games.
Xining city to carry out the rectification of weak and lax grassroots party organizations as the main content of educational practice activities. As of now, the city’s 191 grassroots party organizations are weak and lax, 69 villages, 6 communities, 53 institutions, 6 state-owned enterprises, 6 private organizations, 2 social organizations a total of 142 achieved transformation, the conversion rate of 74.3%.
leading cadres to co-ordinate co-ordination to promote rectification. For individual party organization "Yung lazy, soft, loose and in recent years the emergence of some discipline violations and other issues, the comprehensive rectification difficulty and other factors, organization of Party organizations are weak and lax arrangements unite 216 leading cadres for the investigation of 97 villages, 9 communities, 54 institutions, 7 19 state-owned enterprises, non-public economic organizations and 5 agency. Department of contact point based on post and promote the rectification. Looking to find real at the party organizations are weak and lax "disease", combined with the actual situation of grassroots party organizations are weak and lax and the urgent demand for the city’s 56 village Party organizations are weak and lax arrangements with 60 functional departments, to help industrial development, help improve the organization, to help maintain stability, promote the implementation of grassroots party organizations are weak and lax consolidation and transformation. In a special working group to promote the rectification Dundian field. For the masses of resources, assets, financial problems and contradictions and disputes, the situation is more complex, more concentrated rectification difficult 113 Party organizations are weak and lax, the city of Xining in 117 special working group composed of cadres, rural village cadres, township cadres 548 people, responsible person, timing, targeted for months to carry out special rectification. Select "first secretary" guidance Bangdai promote rectification. Has selected 86 good political quality, strong sense of the masses, the party members and cadres familiar with the work of Party building as the first party secretary of the party organization of the 86 weak and lax". First Secretary of the use of personal strengths to strengthen the coordination and coordination of relevant leadership and functional departments, to improve the ability of grassroots organizations to promote the development of weak and lax, serving the masses. Appoint the party building instructor to promote rectification. 191 in a timely manner to the grassroots party organizations are weak and lax selected high political quality, policy theory ripe, strong ability to work, have certain experience in Party building work of grass-roots party construction work to ensure the rectification of instructors, "three promotion", to promote the transformation of party management without gaps, through the open letter "find", telephone, SMS, visit "find the door, sent letters to the field" commissioned to find ", carry out party for organization, organization for Party members" of the "double search" activities, to ensure that all the party members to participate in educational practice.