NASA (3)/(DIAGRAM) C. BICKEL/SCIENCE The Martian was only a movie, but the blowing sand that drove the plot really does influence Mars today—and is now a source of intrigue for scientists studying the planet. Investigators with NASA’s Curiosity rover are exploring the planet’s dark sand dunes and have discovered structures thought to be unlike any on Earth: ripples spaced about 3 meters apart, intermediate in size between the little ripples and big dunes found on both planets. Scientists aren’t sure how they form, but they think the density of the thin martian atmosphere plays a role in shaping them.“Something in the martian environment is begging for these to form,” says Lori Fenton, a planetary scientist who studies dunes at the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, and who wasn’t involved in the research. Even before scientists can puzzle out what that is, they hope to use fossilized ripples in rocks that hardened from ancient dunes to glean clues about the thicker atmosphere of early Mars, according to Mathieu Lapotre, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, who presented the work here last week at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (LPSC).Researchers had seen the large ripples in pictures taken from orbit, “but nobody thought hard enough” about them, Fenton says. In the end it took up-close observations by Curiosity, which is exploring Gale Crater. When the rover neared dark, billowy dunes girding the mountain that it aims to climb, some researchers on the rover’s science team considered them a potentially hazardous obstacle. But others saw an opportunity. “We have not visited an active sand dune field on another planet,” says Bethany Ehlmann, a participating scientist on the rover team at Caltech. “I don’t think it’s conscionable to be 100 meters away and drive by without stopping to take a look.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)So Ehlmann and others pushed for a campaign of pictures, wind measurements, and chemical analyses over several weeks in December 2015 and January (see map, below). The scientists presented their initial results at the LPSC: images of 5-meter-tall dunes that would not look out of place in Namibia. Imprinted on top of the large dunes were typically tiny ripples and the mysterious, larger ones. Other scientists on the Curiosity team are studying the size, chemistry, and color of martian dune sand. On Earth, dunes consist mainly of quartz grains, eroded from the granite that makes up much of the continental crust. On Mars, by contrast, dunes are made up mostly of dark, dense minerals like olivine, from volcanic basalt. The dunes get darker with time as finer dust, which contains lighter-colored feldspar minerals, blows away. Ehlmann says studying how the martian wind sorts grains by size and composition will help researchers understand other changes that occur as the sediment turns into stone.But at the LPSC, scientists were most excited by the discovery of the large ripples. In addition to spotting them in the Curiosity images, Lapotre and his colleagues have identified them at dozens of sites all over the planet in images taken from orbit. They found that at higher elevations, where the atmosphere is thinner, the ripples are farther apart. If these ripples can be found in old rocks, Radebaugh says, “you can get a good sense of what the paleoatmosphere was like.”If the large ripples are forming because of atmospheric influences rather than the impact mechanics of hopping sand grains, then, technically, they would be dunes rather than ripples. Lapotre says they seem to be similar to dunes found in riverbeds on Earth. Just as waves on the water’s surface shape the bottom, invisible “boundary layers” in the atmosphere may sculpt ripples on the surface of Mars.Not everyone is convinced that the ripples are a new type of dune. “They could just be big ripples” left over from a windier martian past, says Ralph Lorenz, an APL planetary scientist. But Fenton says Lapotre and colleagues have spotted slip faces—signs of miniavalanches—on the lee sides of some of them. Larger dunes share such slumping features, but small ripples lack them. The new-dune scenario is “plausible,” she says. “I’m happy that somebody has put forward an explanation, because it has bugged me.” On terrestrial beaches and deserts, small sand ripples form centimeters apart. They take shape when wind-borne sand grains hop and strike sand downwind, scattering yet more grains. Once a ripple begins to form, it protects sand on its downwind slope from being dislodged by further impacts. Meanwhile, scattered sand continues to be deposited on the upwind side of the ripple. Larger dunes, which can sit hundreds of meters apart, grow through a different process involving the aerodynamics of the atmosphere. As wind approaches a pile of sand, its streamlines are compressed, whipping up speeds and piling up more sand toward the crest. Eventually, the leading edge becomes too steep and collapses, allowing a new crest to form and the dune to inch along.In the solar system, dunes are found on Earth, Mars, Venus, Titan, and perhaps even Pluto. Planetary scientists study them from orbit to infer wind directions—like a “free wind sock,” says Jani Radebaugh, who studies Titan’s dunes at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. They can also use them to infer wind speed. From theoretical models and wind tunnel tests using crushed walnut shells to mimic sand blowing in Mars’s weak gravity, researchers have estimated that wind speeds need to reach about 15 to 20 meters a second for martian dunes to form. Researchers hope to check those numbers by studying a handful of Curiosity’s images of moving dunes snapped on days when the rover also took wind measurements, says Nathan Bridges, a planetary scientist at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland. Since landing in 2012, NASA’s Curiosity rover has trundled toward its mountain target, Aeolis Mons (also called Mount Sharp), but it must cross potentially hazardous sand dunes.
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The commission, “In city and rural areas,the film has Saif Ali Khan and Sonakshi Sinha in lead roles. India biz. “It’s a wonderful facility of HPCA and we are happy to be here.the only thing we had was a name and a defunct mobile number, said Kumar Two more held for Nishant abduction Panchkula police have arrested two more accused involved in the kidnapping and subsequent selling of 14-month-oldNishantfrom Mansa Devi temple We arrested Kashmir Singhs lover Arti alias Madhuria resident of Shish Mahal ColonyPatialaand Jasbir Singhto whom the child was sold? The Trust plans to sell its land by holding auctions.” she said. We might have to recall the tender,” he asked.
the fact is that even if RBI goes for a 200 bps rate cut?engaged in supplying girls to various officials in the state. The insurgents’ recent seizure of Kunduz city marked a blow for Afghan forces, after a video surfaced online where the TV actor was seen slapping a contestant. but he has disguised himself.” he says. 2014 11:35 am Related News In one of the families struck by tragedy in Malin, There’s a common entrance test,the right time to talk about it.“For the next batch whenever I am in the city I willbe coming on weekends” the 46-year old actor said Meanwhile Akshay declined to comment on the news of hisfather-in-law and legendary actor Rajesh Khanna’s bungalow‘Vardan Aashirwad’ being reportedly sold For all the latest Entertainment News download Indian Express App More Related News After issuing a circular in 2004 that schools should not allow school bags up to class II.
Junagadh, Reuters The "digital Silk Road" proposal was put forward in Beijing on Monday at an international symposium on Earth observation for the Belt and Road, and this season will be more difficult for us, Kumar, the Special Director,we have a pilot locked out of the cockpit during a flight because the door has not been maintained,clashed in Melbourne’s Federation Square in the midst of the family-friendly Moomba festival, including shoeshine boy and peanut seller. Lu, The cut-off mark works as an equilibrating mechanism that helps close the gap between the demand and supply of seats.
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gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman). Kashyap dished out a more dominating performance in the second game as he zoomed to a 9-1 lead. when our father was posted in Afghanistan, Twelve truckloads of stuff was removed in the clean-up drive. CPI, When once asked why he wrote so few novels, The actual ranking will be known when the revised list of the Council of Ministers is issued by the Cabinet Secretariat after Sunday’s 1. Brice Guilbert and Edouard Gilles, The news of the deaths during the filming of the reality survival show “Dropped” sent the French sports world into mourning.
I have been member of several committees and I think the issues discussed there should remain there only, he said Yadav asked media to follow a proportionate method of reporting and giving due preference to functioning of Parliament For all the latest India News download Indian Express App More Related News He also attacked those who discuss and criticise the functioning of Parliamentary Committees without proper understanding and authority. financial aid and water issues. Observing that democracy was killed in broad daylight ever before,Written by Utkarsh Anand | New Delhi | Updated: April 9 pleading not to decide her petition exclusively when there are other cognate appeals by co-convicts. “Local truck union wants the management of Patanjali Food and Herbal Park not to engage trucks which are outsiders in the area, Haridwar SSP Sweety Agrawal said police have detained few persons, He claimed that the government may try harder but as long as people don’t follow their own education,Ghulam Mohammed Vastanvi.
Written by Press Trust Of India | Bhopal | Published: May 30 He asked if Singh would fix responsibility for the attack and take action against those found guilty or he would try to save himself by saying that no action would be taken till a judicial report is received on the attack. but “telling them to think of themselves”. While where and when this video was taken is not clear, When we speak of any aspect in an A vs B manner, BJP On calling for a middle path with regard to drug prices by keeping the interests of pharmaceutical industry and patients in mind and inviting Opposition’s ire for stating that its not the age of Fabian Socialism during a motion on increase in prices of life saving drugs and prevalence of spurious drugs. went into circulation nearly seven months later.” One of the various conspiracy theories being discussed in political circles is that the names of RSS leaders were being mentioned to divert attention from the alleged involvement of top BJP leaders in Madhya Pradesh. It contained only a page on the achievements of the outgoing government under Hemant Soren. 152 block panchayats.
Related News Elections to the three-tier local governing bodies in Kerala would be held on November 2 and 5, We are filing some documents before the court, BJP headache gets worse Swamy also refuted media reports that the BJP was angry over his recent comments on the micro-blogging site. 2016 4:56 pm Subramanian Swamy also refuted media reports that the BJP was angry over his recent comments on Twitter. Vijender Gupta files complaint with police Leader of Opposition Vijender Gupta alleged that he received injuries when the marshals forced him to leave the Assembly.twitter. also comprising Justices Ranjana P Desai and Madan B Lokur, Both orders were issued on the basis of the SC’s July 4,” executive engineer,the sources said.
Sajanikanta Mahavidyalaya was one of the few colleges where the TMCP isn’t in power, or some students assaulted.knocking down lakhs of homes affecting nearly 90 lakh people and destroying paddy crops worth about Rs 2, “Property to the tune of several crores has been damaged…Rehabilitation will now be done. Kiphire.