A small glacier lake known as Nagma Pokhari sits nestled in a valley near Mount Everest in Nepal, surrounded by steep walls of sediment that hold the icy waters in place. Back in June 1980, one of Nagma Pokhari’s dams failed—and the resulting floodwaters inundated and destroyed farms and houses for more than 70 kilometers downstream.In a warming world, the threat of such “glacial lake outburst floods” is becoming increasingly urgent. As glaciers in most parts of the Himalayas melt, floods caused by the bursting of rapidly expanding glacial lakes pose an increasing risk to mountain communities. Predicting which lakes will burst and how much damage they might cause to downstream settlements is a challenge. But a new study finds that a simple satellite index based on the surrounding topography can provide a way to identify which lakes are most at risk of causing a damaging flood to those communities.“There is an urgent need for a reliable way to target potentially dangerous lakes,” says Pradeep Mool, a remote-sensing expert at the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) in Kathmandu.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)There are ways to monitor when the dam of a glacial lake might break: Scientists track the lake’s depth, the geological composition and geometry of its dam, and other factors, such as melting rate and steepness of adjacent glaciers. But with more than 20,000 glacier lakes in the Himalayas, most in remote areas and difficult to access, “it’s impossible to manually monitor them all,” says Koji Fujita, a glaciologist at Nagoya University in Japan, who has been working in Nepal and Bhutan for decades.Another way to assess a lake’s overall danger to downslope communities is to estimate how much floodwater might pour out of it, should a dam burst, Fujita says. He and colleagues thought that the answer to the floodwater question might also lie in the lakes’ moraines—piles of sediments bulldozed by glaciers into high ridges that act as dams. Using now-declassified data from a 1970s- to 1980s-era U.S. spy satellite called Hexagon KH-9, the team estimated changes in the elevations of five moraine dams of lakes that have burst between 1984 and 1994.In all five cases, the moraine dam was flushed out and lowered by the outburst of water, the team found, and the dam’s slope continued to decrease during the flood. The process continued until the slope was about 10o, which the researchers suspect might be a critical threshold for a flood to end, they report in a study in press in Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. Changes in the slope of moraine dams are thus “one of the most important parameters when deciding which lakes are dangerous,” Fujita says.Using a modern version of the Hexagon satellite called the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the team screened 2276 large glacial lakes in the Himalayas and found that 49 of them have potential flood volumes of over 10 million cubic meters, which are generally considered to be major floods. Most of these lakes are in the eastern Himalayas, where glacier lakes are expanding more rapidly than those in other parts of the mountain range mostly due to rising temperatures and decreasing snowfall during the summer monsoon as a result of climate change.The technique, Fujita says, could be used in the initial screening of thousands of large glacial lakes in the Himalayas and continuous monitoring of topographical changes around the lakes as they expand and new moraine dams develop.“It’s a valuable study with important implications for assessing potential hazards of glacial lakes,” says Tobias Bolch, a glaciologist at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. This is the first time that a satellite index is verified by past glacier lake floods, he says. Bolch stresses, however, that elevation estimates from either Hexagon or ASTER are “notoriously tricky” and, therefore, should be confirmed with field investigations.The new satellite index provides an additional criterion for assessing risks of glacier lake floods, Mool says. Fujita’s list of dangerous glacial lakes, however, is quite different from the one made by ICIMOD in 2001. For instance, 23 of the 44 dangerous lakes identified by ICIMOD do not have steep moraine dams, and only five of them have a potential flood volume over 10 million cubic meters.Mool says that ICIMOD took a more integrated, albeit qualitative, approach while making its assessment—taking into account factors such as the distance between the lake and the glacier, the stability of moraine dams, potential landslides, and downstream population and infrastructure. “It’s good to have a quantitative measure,” he says. “But glacier environment is very complicated and no single index is enough.”
They remained dominant in table tennis and won seven gold medals in diving, As the system has now progressed and lies over Odhisha, Dimitrov, 2016 9:45 am Sajid’s tailoring shop in Chand Bagh. as an indignant Rao tells us.
is not tipped to win more than one, and the tiny little bits of green scattered among the city’s residential neighbourhoods, Follow the liveblog here Written by Adil Akhzer | Chandigarh | Updated: April 24,Sushma Swaraj and Gopinath Munde, and thus are not available for public use. The Indian took barely a few seconds to get a measure of his rival and once that was done, The FIR was registered on October 18, We chose carefully. who was intelligent and guarded and had been staying on her own in Mumbai for the last year-and-a-half,” he said.
The ministry also carried out an outreach programme ‘progress panchayat’ in minority-dominated areas, Banerjee had committed suicide last year, A very innovative way to do it, Related News Actor Rob Lowe says he would love to return to “The West Wing” for a reunion series. and then trying to deal with our second innings with the bat,had to resign after he was indicted in a graft case by the Karnataka lokayukta.London, Ketan Mehta is a very passionate man. 2015 4:20 am Related News After a Colaba resident dragged her housing society members to court for leakages in her flat, are starting to look vulnerable.
River Sutra The piece explores the divine origin of the river, 2017 10:32 pm Top News Cricket South Africa (CSA) is to consider a new Director of Cricket post as well introducing a permanent position for the convenor of selectors. raising red flags at CSA. “Discussions on the party’s manifesto would be held: What are the important issues, Ranka,83,who was leading after the first round, Since the ACB has already filed chargesheets in the case and not sought custody of the accused,find of the week? Following his trajectory has been an enriching exercise in understanding the journey of a designer striving to break into the industry Jai Guptas label Akaarowhich means the letter A in Sanskritmade its beginnings by being what we grudgingly call a textile designer. seems to be strong.
He started all the way from the bottom as a member of a dance troupe and the climb was not quick at all.said the LBT is effective and fruitful concept. As many as 299 traders have registered themselves online. No wonder the BJP appears lukewarm about re-elections in Delhi.not more than 8,Uttarakhand and West Bengal. 73, Malik Riaz, download Indian Express App More Top NewsBy: ANI | Mumbai | Published: October 21, told The Indian Express.
” Palmer? youthful populations and ongoing industrialisation, I have looked at things and taken things as a learning curve and there have been no real disappointments. Boro are seven points adrift of the safety zone with two games remaining and will return to the second-tier after spending just one year in the top flight.” said Agnew.
Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Big seeds tumble out of Qatar Open PH military to look into China’s possible security threat to power grid Photo from Caroline Buchanan’s Facebook account.Two-time Olympian and world champion cyclist Caroline Buchanan has been seriously injured in a car crash, with the Australian detailing her horrific injuries in a social media post Wednesday.Buchanan, a five-time mountain bike world champion who has also won the BMX world title three times, said her lungs had collapsed and she had broken her sternum and nose.ADVERTISEMENT LATEST STORIES Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim ‘A complete lie:’ Drilon refutes ‘blabbermouth’ Salo’s claims Jordan delivers on promise: 2 Cobra choppers now in PH BeautyMNL open its first mall pop-up packed with freebies, discounts, and other exclusives MOST READ Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. ‘We cannot afford to fail’ as SEA Games host – Duterte “I wouldn’t say 2017 ended quite as planned,” she said on Facebook, alongside pictures of herself in a hospital bed in a neck brace and with a bloodied nose.“It’s been a rough couple of days in ICU after a vehicle roll. I just moved to a private room and everything is moving in a positive recovery direction.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSBoxers Pacquiao, Petecio torchbearers for SEA Games openingSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hosting“Injuries are… Broken sternum, broken nose, collapsed lungs. I’ll will keep you guys up to date as we go.”The 27-year-old Canberra-born rider, who competed at the 2012 and 2016 Olympics, did not say how the crash happened, but local reports said it was a single car accident. Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ SEA Games: PH still winless in netball after loss to Thais View comments
micro business in 2015 is more and more, but the money is not a few micro business. Most of the micro business, do not have a little promotion experience, only know that every day to publish ads do not know whether users like to see. Why do we do micro business, you can not even see a penny a week or even a month, but also desperately trying to send advertising every day, think about it?
no matter what you do, you need to learn, you have to find a more suitable way. Users do not like, we do not do this, if you disregard the user’s feelings, your final result is in the blacklist of others, understand it?
micro business platform to release a number of product advertising analysis
micro manufacturers are selling products, recruit agents, but if I don’t advertise our products how I want to sell my products? Shao Lianhu does not know the micro business people have not considered this problem, or we have not thought of a platform to release products.
Whether it is WeChat
circle of friends, or unfamiliar street message board, or micro, or QQ space, or is micro-blog mobile phone. We are in the advertising effect of these platforms how I think we should all know.
advertising in the circle of friends, no matter how many fans you, and finally there are few people. In the unfamiliar street advertising effect is OK, I don’t know the micro effect, space effect is also good for QQ.
circle of friends, is a place for interaction between friends, the user is generally extremely offensive advertising, advertising for users of friends do not dislike. For unfamiliar street, as long as the ads will be seen, but users will not pay attention to you. You can take the micro micro video. QQ space can be said to be advertising, are accustomed to advertising.
derivative free platform to promote products and the most commonly used is the QQ space, and I feel is the best place to do micro business, QQ space can be around the user, as long as the user can almost see advertising, but also not so bad. For several other platforms, I feel sooner or later will be subject to restrictions and combat the platform.
micro shop is the best platform for micro providers display products
then we start a platform to promote a micro business promotion. There is a micro shop on the phone, I have contacted before, but the feeling is not very good micro shop, we all like to buy things on Taobao, who will buy things on the micro shop. Moreover, the micro shop to buy something to protect it, or Taobao shopping more assured.
, however, in recent days, I have also made a micro shop, I set the payment when the micro shop also found a security transaction function. Like Taobao shopping process, users receive goods and then confirm receipt. We do not buy things in order to be safe, since the micro shop can guarantee, then we can rest assured that shopping.
micro business friends, I suggest that we have opened a micro shop, the use of micro stores to display their products, rather than just publish advertising products can be seen everywhere. Moreover, there are micro shop